Przywracanie GRUB’a

Przywracanie bootloadera GRUB za pomocą systemu systemu linux LiveCD na przykładzie Ubuntu.

Aby móc przywrócić nasz boot loader po pierwsze musimy zaopatrzyć się w jakąkolwiek wersję linuxa dostępną na LiveCD, najpopularniejszą i chyba najbardziej znaną jest Ubuntu. Najnowszą wersję tego systemu możemy pobrać tutaj. Jeżeli wolimy Ubuntu w ojczystym języku pobieramy go stąd.

Jeżeli już posiadamy wspomniany wcześniej system, uruchamiamy nasz komputer bootując go z płyty CD.

Po uruchomieniu systemu włączamy terminal i wpisujemy:

$ sudo fdisk -l

Polecenie to wylistuje wszystkie dostępne partycje w naszym komputerze. W wyświetlonej liście poszukujemy partycji, na której zainstalowaliśmy naszą dystrybucję systemu linux i zapamiętujemy, które do urządzenie. W moim przypadku będzie to /dev/sda1.

Kolejnym krokiem jest zamontowanie wybranej partycji w wybranym katalogu, co robimy poleceniem:

$ sudo mount /dev/sda1 /mnt

Jak widzimy montujemy naszą partycję linuksową w katalogu /mnt.

Jeżeli posiadamy katalog /boot na oddzielnej partycji musimy ją również zamontować (na przykład przyjmijmy, że katalog ten znajduje sie na /dev/sda2):

$ sudo mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/boot

Następnie montujemy pozostałe elementy, które będą nam potrzebne przy zmianie głównego katalogu systemu:

$ sudo mount –bind /dev /mnt/dev
$ sudo mount –bind /proc /mnt/proc
$ sudo mount –bind /sys /mnt/sys

Teraz możemy przystąpić do zmiany głównego katalogu w jakim będzie pracował system. Zmiany dokonujemy poleceniem chroot.

$ sudo chroot /mnt

Dzięki komendzie chroot możemy pracować na plikach zainstalowanej dystrybucji linuxa na naszej zamontowanej partycji.

Obecnie posiadamy prawa root’a w systemie i nie musimy już wywoływać polecenia sudo.

Możemy teraz przystąpić do naprawy naszego bootloadera. Edytujemy plik /etc/default/grub aby zmienić konfigurację GRUB’a.

$ nano /etc/default/grub

Kiedy skończymy edycję musimy wykonać polecenie:

$ update-grub

w celu stworzenia nowego pliku konfiguracyjnego.

Jeżeli chcemy dokonać instalacji GRUB 2 w MBR, musimy uruchomić polecenie grub-install i wskazać partycję, na której dokonujemy instalacji:

$ grub-install /dev/sda

Jeżeli podczas wykonywania powyższego polecenia wystąpią jakieś błędy możemy spróbować wykonać polecenie:

$ grub-install –recheck /dev/sda

Jeżeli wszystko przebiegło pomyślnie wciskamy Ctrl+D aby powrócić do wcześniejszego katalogu głównego systemu.

Przed zakończeniem pracy musimy odmontować wszystkie wcześniej zamontowane urządzenia zaczynając od:

$ sudo umount /mnt/dev
$ sudo umount /mnt/sys
$ sudo umount /mnt/proc

Teraz już możemy odmontować główny system plików, ale jeśli montowaliśmy oddzielną partycję bootującą (/boot) musimy ją pierwszą odmontować i dopiero potem główny system plików:

$ sudo umount /mnt

Gdy odmontujemy już wszystkie urządzenia możemy wyłączyć komputer i wyjąć płytę z Ubuntu. Po ponownym włączeniu komputera powinien ukazać się naszym oczom ekran wyboru systemu GRUB’a.


Alternatywnym rozwiązaniem jest wykorzystanie niedużej dystrybucji linuxa SuperGrubDisk umożliwia ona wykrywanie i bootowanie systemu, jak również przywrócenie i instalację GRUB’a. Na stronie projektu znajdziemy również wiele przydatnych informacji dotyczących problemów z bootowanie systemu i GRUB’em.

Tekst powstał na podstawie: Recover Grub 2 via LiveCD

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